Government Funding Cheat Sheet
“Appropriations” is the yearly process that Congress uses to decide how to spend money in the federal budget. It happens every spring, and when we can successfully influence the process, it has a huge impact on the global fight against poverty. But it’s filled with jargon and acronyms that get thrown around on Capitol Hill. Bookmark this cheat-sheet of terms to use throughout the spring. And here you can learn more about how RESULTS works to influence appropriations each year on global poverty.
Fiscal year: a 12-month accounting period from Oct 1 to September 30, which the U.S. government uses instead of the traditional calendar year.
Fiscal Year 2021 (FY21): This is the current government year we’re in, October 1, 2020 – September 30, 2021. Spending bills for this fiscal year were approved as part of the year-end deal in December 2020.
Fiscal Year 2022 (FY22): The work we’ll do this spring will be to influence funding levels for FY22 (October 1, 2021 – September 30, 2022).
Parts of the federal budget
Mandatory spending: Spending that is already required by law and will automatically continue without action from lawmakers (in other words, it’s not a part of the appropriations process, but is a part of the federal budget). Examples: Social Security, Medicare/Medicaid, and SNAP (formerly food stamps).
Discretionary spending: Unlike the “automatic” nature of mandatory spending, discretionary spending is voluntary and determined by Congress every year during the appropriations process. Examples: international health programs, education, disaster assistance, and defense.
The Appropriations process – What are the pieces?
Appropriations: The yearly process for Congress to decide how to spend money in the federal budget. They “appropriate” money line-by-line to different programs (for example, to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance).
Enacted levels for program funding: The current funding level based on the most recently passed spending bill.
Continuing Resolution (CR): A temporary measure to fund the government, often used as a stopgap when the full spending bills have not been passed by Congress.
Government Shutdown: This is what happens when Congress fails to agree on how to fund the government before the end of the fiscal year (or before a Continuing Resolution expires).
The Appropriations process – Who does what?
Appropriations Committees and Subcommittees: Both the House and the Senate have committees that focus solely on appropriations (in other words, how to spend the money in the federal budget). Each of those committees is split into 12 subcommittees that focus on particular areas, from housing to transportation to agriculture. RESULTS’ global campaigns directs its advocacy towards the House and Senate subcommittees that control funding for international health and poverty programs (known as the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs subcommittees)
State and Foreign Operations and Related Programs (SFOPs): The "SFOPs" subcommittees decide the annual funding levels for foreign policy priorities – everything from operating U.S. Embassies around the world, to paying State Department staff, to fighting global poverty (this is all sometimes referred to as the “international affairs budget” or the “150 Account”). Both the House and Senate subcommittees write their own version of the bill, and then try to come to agreement. At RESULTS, we work to make sure that the SFOPs bill includes specific funding levels for key health and education programs that support local leaders to tackle poverty.
Chair: The Chair is the head of a congressional committee or subcommittee. They always represent the majority party (right now, Democrats in both the Senate and House).
Ranking Member: The Ranking Member is the most senior member of the minority party on a congressional committee or subcommittee (right now, Republicans in both the Senate and House).
Leadership: Leadership in Congress are the heads of the parties represented by the Speaker of the House/House Minority Leader or Senate Majority Leader/Senate Minority Leader. Leadership on a committee is the Chair and Ranking Member.
Members of Congress: Members of Congress who aren’t on one of the relevant subcommittees still have a hugely important role in three key ways:
- Sign-On Letter (also called a “Dear Colleague”): A sign-on letter is designed to rally support for RESULTS’ funding priorities. Members of Congress circulate the letter to their colleagues to get as many “sign-ons” as possible, and then it’s sent on to the Chair and Ranking Member of the SFOPS committee. Letters with a high number of signatures from both Democrats and Republicans have the most sway.
- Written Personal Requests: All members of Congress can speak or write to the subcommittee leadership, asking them to include specific funding levels in their bill.
- Speaking Personally: Members of Congress often make personal appeals to their colleagues to support the issues they care about. But depending on the situation and the members, it can take more political capital to weigh in this way with leadership.
Foreign Policy Aide: The person in a congressional office who helps your member of Congress make decisions on foreign policy (including funding requests).
Other Parts of the Budget Process
President’s Request (also called “President’s Budget”): Before appropriations start, the president’s budget request, typically released in early February, lays out the administration’s priorities for the following fiscal year, which begins October 1. But ultimately its just a recommendation, and Congress makes the final decisions on their own.
Congressional Budget Resolution: The budget “blueprint” that Congress develops following the president’s request. While non-binding, the Congressional Budget Resolution is important because it sets the terms of the budget debate and lays out the maximum amount of money that will be available for a variety of federal programs, including global anti-poverty programs.