United States Governmental Agencies, Programs, and Funds
Though only a fraction of the many agencies, programs, and funds that the U.S. government has established, the following are important to our work at RESULTS. Terms under other topics are defined in the glossary, or visit Background Information on the Legislative Process.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were established in 1946 and use a system of health surveillance to monitor and prevent the outbreak of diseases, educate others about strategies for disease prevention, and maintain the health statistics of the United States. Working with state health departments and other organizations, the CDC provides for control of workplace hazards, environmental health threats, and infectious diseases (through immunization). It is one of the 13 major agencies of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and is based in Atlanta, Georgia. Research conducted by the CDC significantly improves health decisions, the response to health emergencies, and the daily lives of ordinary people. It also utilizes its personnel in more than 25 foreign countries to contain the transmission of international diseases.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the principal agency of the United States Government for protecting the health of Americans and providing essential services, especially for those who are unable to help themselves. It was first created in 1979 by President Jimmy Carter and is now one of the 15 United States federal executive departments. It includes more than 300 programs that undertake such activities as preventing disease, assuring food and drug safety, Medicare and Medicaid, health information technology, and Head Start. HHS administers more grant dollars than all other federal agencies combined, working closely with both state and local governments.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is the primary agency of the U.S. government for conducting and supporting medical research. Its over 38,000 research projects across the nation investigate ways to prevent diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, arthritis, heart ailments, and AIDS, while also examining causes, treatments, and cures. The NIH is both a leader and financial supporter to researchers in all U.S. states as well as abroad. It is composed of 27 institutes and centers, with its headquarters in Bethesda, MD.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) — not to be confused with UNAIDS — is the principal independent United States federal agency that provides economic, development, and humanitarian assistance abroad in accordance with the foreign policy goals of the United States. Receiving guidance from the U.S. Secretary of State, it supports: (1) economic growth, agriculture, and trade; (2) global health; and (3) democracy, conflict prevention, and humanitarian assistance. USAID assists four principal regions of the world: sub-Saharan Africa; Asia and the Near East; Latin America and the Caribbean; and Europe and Eurasia. With its headquarters in Washington, DC, USAID possesses field offices around the world and works with private voluntary organizations, indigenous organizations, universities, American businesses, international agencies, other governments, and other United States government agencies. It has relationships with over 3,500 American companies and more than 300 private voluntary organizations based in the United States.
The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) was announced in 2002 and created in 2004 by President George W. Bush as a mechanism to promote economic growth in qualified developing countries. Using a selective process, the MCA rewards countries that make sound policy decisions in supporting the economic growth and reduction of poverty of their people; it provides aid to countries that rule justly, invest in their people, and encourage economic freedom. President Bush first announced the establishment of the Millennium Challenge Account as part of the United States goal to increase its core assistance to developing countries by 50 percent over the next 3 years, resulting in a $5 billion annual increase over current levels by FY 2006.
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) is a corporation owned by the United States Government responsible for running the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA). Like the MCA, it was announced in 2002 and created in 2004 by President George W. Bush. Managed by a chief executive officer appointed by the president and overseen by a board of directors, the Millennium Challenge Corporation works to support and ensure accountability for the foreign aid strategies it administers. Congress provided nearly $1 billion in initial funding as well as $1.4 billion and $1.7 billion in the following years for the MCC and its assistance programs.
The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was first announced by President Bush in his State of the Union address in 2003. PEPFAR is a five-year, $15 billion plan that works in 120 countries around the world, with particular emphasis on 15 countries in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. PEPFAR works to support treatment of at least 2 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS, prevent 7 million new infections, and care for 10 million people infected with and affected by HIV. It is the largest international health initiative commitment in history dedicated to combating a single disease.
The President’s Malaria Initiative, announced by President Bush in 2005, is a $1.2 billion, five-year initiative aimed at controlling malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. This collaborative U.S. Government effort is being led by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) along with the Department of Health and Human Services (in particular, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of State, the White House, and others. The initiative’s specific goal is to assist national malaria control programs to cut malaria-related deaths by 50 percent in 15 target African countries. To achieve this goal, the programs will reach 85 percent of the most vulnerable groups (including children under the age of five and pregnant women) with proven, effective control measures for prevention and treatment. PMI’s approach supports indoor spraying of homes with insecticides, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, lifesaving anti-malarial drugs, and treatment to prevent malaria in pregnant women.
The United States Government provides money for foreign assistance through the Foreign Operations Bill, which is passed each year during the appropriations process by the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Activities Subcommittee on Appropriations. The money provided in this bill is divided among many funds/accounts, so that it is directed at a more specific area of foreign assistance. The following is a list of several funds/accounts through which money is directed that affect the work of RESULTS. Each fund is administered by USAID.
The Child Survival and Health Programs Fund (CSH) focuses on improving health interventions around the world. The fund supports immunization, oral rehydration, health, nutrition, water and sanitation, displaced and orphaned children, family planning, reproductive health, and the prevention, treatment, and control of HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, and polio. Money in the CSH is directed specifically to the following programs:
HIV/AIDS programs: these funds are integrated within the policy and strategic direction for PEPFAR, but they are directed to non-focus countries (while PEPFAR focuses on 15 countries)
Other Infectious Disease Programs: this funding focuses on prevention and control of malaria, tuberculosis, avian influenza, and programs to combat anti-microbial resistance and disease surveillance. A good portion of the money used to fight malaria goes to the President’s Malaria Initiative, while many of the funds used to fight tuberculosis go to DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course) programs.
Child Survival and Maternal Health Programs: these funds support the goal of reducing the number of deaths in children under the age of five and saving the lives of women from pregnancy-related causes.
Vulnerable Children Programs: these funds support the Displaced Children and Orphans Fund which strengthens the capacity of families and communities to care, support, and protect orphans, street children, and war-affected children.
Family Planning and Reproductive Health programs: these funds support access to information, commodities, and services for family planning.
The Development Assistance (DA) Account is used to enable longer-term development in “transformational development countries” (countries in need who have good performances in economic and social policy). This fund works to make contributions to
- economic growth — these programs are aimed at increasing trade and investment, for instance, by strengthening private markets;
- democratic governance — these programs support free and fair elections and promote respect for human rights and the rule of law, among other activities;
- agricultural productivity and management of natural resources — programs, for example, mobilize science and technology to reduce poverty and hunger;
- educational programs — programs fund basic educational activities that strengthen pre-primary, primary, and secondary education, overall literacy, and teacher training; and
- greater peace and security — programs pursue solutions to conflict and state failure while pursuing other goals as well.
The Displaced Children and Orphans Fund (DCOF) focuses its financial support on addressing the needs of most-at-risk and vulnerable children — children who have been affected by armed conflict, street children, children with disabilities, and children who are otherwise separated from necessary care. The DCOF is not a USAID project. Rather, it is one of USAID’s three special funds that are reserved each year by Congress. In particular, it works to help families and communities provide care, protection, and support for their children in need. Projects supported by this fund seek to be based in the community and carried out by members of the community, to allow the participation and decision making of children, and to address both the physical and emotional needs of families and children while maintaining respect for their religions and cultures.
The Economic Support Fund (ESF) was established by Congress to promote economic and political stability in those regions that are strategically important to the United States and to its security. The funds are provided to countries on a grant basis in order to assist allies and countries in democratic transition, support the Middle East peace negotiations, and finance economic stabilization programs. For example, funds may be used for infrastructure and development projects. Some objectives of the ESF include supporting projects designed to increase the role of the private sector in the economy, developing and strengthening institutions necessary for sustainable democracy, and strengthening the capacity of countries to manage the human dimension of the transition to democracy and to a market economy, while helping to sustain the neediest people during this transition.
Coalitions:United States Coalition for Child Survival
The United States Coalition for Child Survival incorporates organizations — corporations, universities, private voluntary organizations (PVOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and faith-based organizations — as well as individuals with the goal of strengthening the commitment of the United States and the world community to improving the health and survival of children in developing countries. It works to increase the understanding and awareness of unmet health needs, effective basic health interventions, and other resources that are necessary to improving child health and survival. It advocates and endeavors to mobilize action and commitment to achieving the child survival goals agreed upon in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The coalition also tries to increase the level of U.S. public, private, and multilateral funding provided for child and maternal health and survival (which the U.S. government principally funds under the Child Survival and Health Programs Fund).
RESULTS is a member of the U.S. Coalition for Child Survival.